A Brief State-of-the-art Review of Pneumatically Applied Concrete or Mortar (Shotcrete)

Report No: 90-TAR5

Published in 1990

About the report:

Shotcrete that is applied using quality materials can provide a suitable product with good durability. The major elements involved in obtaining a high quality product are design, quality control, quality materials, proper application equipment, craftsmanship and placement technique. However, there is a shortage of engineering data, a lack of standard testing procedures that directly relate to the finished product, and there is incomplete knowledge of how nozzle design and exit velocity relate to the durability of the finished product.

While there are a number of examples of shotcrete failures, there is a general consensus that good quality shotcrete is a durable material even when used in severe environmental situations. Some special precautions for the use of shotcrete in severe environments as well as notes on finishing, curing, and reinforcement are given in this review.


Disclaimer Statement:The contents of this report reflect the views of the author(s), who is responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the Virginia Department of Transportation, the Commonwealth Transportation Board, or the Federal Highway Administration. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. Any inclusion of manufacturer names, trade names, or trademarks is for identification purposes only and is not to be considered an endorsement.


Other Authors

Marvin H. Hilton

Last updated: December 27, 2023

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